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Lesson Plans of Ancient Roman Civilization: The Roman Kingdom

The Roman Kingdom, spanning from 753 to 509 BC, represents the foundational period of Roman history, with its legendary founding by Romulus marking the commencement of this era. This epoch is characterized by a monarchical form of governance, led by legendary figures like Romulus and Numa Pompilius.



One of the seminal events of this period is the legendary founding of Rome itself in 753 BC by Romulus, who, according to myth, established the city on the Palatine Hill. This event is shrouded in legend and mythology, yet it holds immense significance as it symbolizes the birth of one of the greatest civilizations in history.


Following the establishment of Rome, the reign of Romulus is described as a time of both growth and conflict. According to legend, he established the Senate, the assembly of Roman citizens, and laid the groundwork for Rome's expansion. However, his reign was also marked by the abduction of the Sabine women, a conflict that ultimately led to the assimilation of the Sabine people into Roman society.


After the mysterious disappearance or death of Romulus, Numa Pompilius succeeded him as the second king of Rome. Numa is credited with the introduction of various religious and legal reforms that helped shape early Roman society. His reign was characterized by a focus on religious piety and the establishment of numerous religious institutions.


Studying the Roman Kingdom and its foundational myths provides valuable insights into the origins of Rome and the development of its political, social, and religious institutions. It offers a glimpse into the early mindset of the Roman people, their values, beliefs, and the myths that helped shape their identity. Understanding these early developments is crucial for comprehending the subsequent evolution of Rome into a dominant political and cultural force in the ancient world.


Moreover, the study of the Roman Kingdom serves as a reminder of the power of myth and legend in shaping historical narratives. While the events of this period may be steeped in mythology, they nevertheless lay the groundwork for the rise of one of the most influential civilizations in human history. Thus, learning about the Roman Kingdom and similar foundational events provides invaluable insights into the complexities of historical interpretation and the formation of collective identities.

Global Events During this Period

During the Roman Kingdom period, spanning from 753 to 509 BC, significant historical events were unfolding across the globe, setting the stage for the emergence of ancient civilizations and shaping the course of human history.

  1. Ancient Egypt (3100–30 BC): During the Early Dynastic Period (3100–2686 BC), Egypt witnessed the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Narmer, marking the beginning of the Pharaonic civilization. The Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC) saw the construction of the iconic pyramids at Giza, including the Great Pyramid of Khufu, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. In the Middle Kingdom (2055–1650 BC), Egypt experienced a period of stability and cultural flourishing, marked by artistic and architectural achievements. The New Kingdom (1550–1069 BC) witnessed the height of Egyptian power and prosperity, with pharaohs like Hatshepsut and Ramses II expanding Egypt's borders and building grand temples and monuments.

  2. Mesopotamia (3500–539 BC): Mesopotamia, the cradle of civilization, saw the rise and fall of several powerful empires, including the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. The Code of Hammurabi (circa 1754 BC) was established in Babylon, one of the earliest known written legal codes, providing insights into ancient Mesopotamian society and justice.

  3. Ancient Greece (c. 3000–146 BC): The Greek Dark Ages (c. 1100–800 BC) followed the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, characterized by cultural decline and limited written records. The Archaic Period (c. 800–480 BC) witnessed the emergence of Greek city-states, such as Athens and Sparta, laying the foundation for the flourishing of art, literature, and philosophy.

  4. China (c. 1600–221 BC): The Shang Dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC) in China saw the development of a sophisticated civilization, characterized by advances in bronze metallurgy, a system of writing, and complex social structures. The Zhou Dynasty (1046–221 BC) followed, marked by the Mandate of Heaven concept, which justified the ruling dynasty's authority based on divine approval.

These events highlight the diversity and complexity of human civilizations during the Roman Kingdom period, providing valuable insights into the development of early societies and the foundations upon which later civilizations would build. Understanding the broader context of global history enriches our appreciation of the Roman Kingdom era and its significance in the tapestry of human civilization.

Important People During this Period

During the Roman Kingdom period (753–509 BC), several individuals played crucial roles in shaping the early history and culture of Rome. Understanding their contributions helps us grasp the foundation upon which the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire were built.


  1. Romulus: Life Summary: Romulus, according to legend, was the founder and first king of Rome. He, along with his twin brother Remus, was said to have been raised by a she-wolf and later founded the city of Rome on the Palatine Hill in 753 BC. He is credited with establishing the city's earliest institutions, including its military and political structure. Importance: Romulus represents the mythical beginning of Rome and the establishment of its foundational institutions. His legend served to unite the diverse communities that came together to form the early Roman state.



  1. Numa Pompilius: Life Summary: Numa Pompilius was the second legendary king of Rome, succeeding Romulus. He is credited with establishing Rome's religious institutions and calendar, as well as its legal and civic customs. Numa is also associated with the codification of Roman religious practices and the creation of the office of pontifex maximus. Importance: Numa's reign laid the groundwork for Rome's religious and legal systems, providing stability and structure to the growing city-state. His influence on Roman religious practices endured for centuries and shaped the spiritual identity of the Roman people.



  1. Ancus Marcius: Life Summary: Ancus Marcius was the fourth king of Rome, succeeding Tullus Hostilius. His reign is noted for expanding Rome's territory through conquest, particularly the annexation of territories along the Tiber River. He is also credited with the construction of Rome's first bridge across the Tiber, known as the Pons Sublicius. Importance: Ancus Marcius's military campaigns and infrastructure projects contributed to the physical growth and development of Rome. His expansionist policies set the stage for Rome's future territorial ambitions and established its dominance in the central Italian region.



  1. Rhea Silvia: According to Roman mythology, Rhea Silvia was a Vestal Virgin and the mother of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. She was the daughter of Numitor, the rightful king of Alba Longa, and was forced to become a Vestal Virgin by the usurper Amulius to prevent her from having children. However, she conceived Romulus and Remus by the god Mars, leading to the founding of Rome.

  2. Livy: While Livy is more known as a historian who chronicled Roman history, his works, particularly "Ab Urbe Condita" (From the Founding of the City), include references to early Roman women and their roles in shaping the kingdom. Livy's accounts provide valuable insights into the social and political dynamics of the Roman Kingdom period.

  3. Tanaquil: Tanaquil is another legendary figure from early Roman history, known for her role as the wife of the Etruscan ruler Tarquinius Priscus and later as the mother of Tarquinius Superbus, the last king of Rome. According to legend, Tanaquil played a significant role in her husband's rise to power and in securing the throne for her son after Tarquinius Priscus's assassination.

  4. Cloelia: Cloelia is celebrated in Roman history for her bravery and leadership during the early years of the Roman Kingdom. According to legend, she was a hostage of Lars Porsena, an Etruscan king, during his siege of Rome. Cloelia managed to escape with a group of young Roman hostages and led them back to Rome, earning praise for her courage and loyalty.


These figures, whether historical or mythical, symbolize the early stages of Roman civilization and its evolution from a small settlement to a powerful city-state. By studying their lives and legacies, we gain insight into the values, beliefs, and institutions that shaped ancient Rome and continue to influence Western civilization today.

Archeological Finds About this Period


Studying the Roman Kingdom, the earliest phase of Roman history, offers a fascinating glimpse into the legendary origins of one of the world's greatest civilizations. Spanning from 753 BC to 509 BC, this period is shrouded in myth and legend, with stories of heroic figures and monumental events shaping the foundation of Rome.


One of the most renowned figures of this era is Romulus, the legendary founder of Rome and its first king. According to legend, Romulus and his twin brother Remus were abandoned as infants and raised by a she-wolf. As adults, they sought to establish a city but disagreed over its location, leading to Romulus killing Remus and founding Rome on the Palatine Hill. Romulus is credited with laying the groundwork for the city's institutions, including its military, legal system, and religious practices. His leadership and vision set the stage for Rome's rise to power.


Another influential figure of the Roman Kingdom is Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome. Unlike the warrior-king Romulus, Numa was known for his wisdom and piety. He is credited with establishing many of Rome's religious institutions, including the Vestal Virgins and the cult of Janus. Numa's reign was characterized by peace and prosperity, and his emphasis on law and order laid the groundwork for the Roman Republic's legal system.


Archaeological evidence plays a crucial role in shedding light on the early history of Rome. Excavations of the Palatine Hill, one of the legendary Seven Hills of Rome and the site of the city's earliest settlement, have uncovered remains dating back to the Iron Age, providing valuable insights into the daily life of the early Romans. Discoveries such as ancient pottery, tools, and artifacts help archaeologists reconstruct the material culture of the Roman Kingdom and validate aspects of the legendary accounts.


Additionally, archaeological findings have revealed the presence of early religious structures and burial sites, offering clues about the spiritual beliefs and funerary practices of the ancient Romans. These discoveries contribute to our understanding of the cultural and religious practices that shaped the early Roman Kingdom and laid the foundation for subsequent developments in Roman society.


Studying the Roman Kingdom and its legendary figures like Romulus and Numa Pompilius allows us to explore the origins of Rome and the factors that contributed to its rise as a dominant civilization. By examining the archaeological evidence alongside historical accounts and mythological narratives, we can gain a deeper understanding of the early roots of Roman civilization and the enduring legacy of its legendary founders.

Life Lessons to Learn While Studying this Period

Studying the Roman Kingdom, the legendary founding period of Rome, offers valuable insights into life lessons and thought processes that continue to resonate today. From the mythical narratives surrounding figures like Romulus and Numa Pompilius to the socio-political dynamics of early Roman society, there are several key lessons to be gleaned from this formative era.


1.    Leadership and Governance: The legendary figures of Romulus and Numa Pompilius provide contrasting models of leadership and governance. Romulus, as the legendary founder of Rome, embodies the bold and assertive leader, while Numa Pompilius represents the wise and pious ruler who focused on the establishment of laws and religious institutions. By studying their stories, we can contemplate the qualities of effective leadership and the importance of governance in shaping the destiny of a community.


2.    Myth and Reality: The blending of myth and historical reality in the narratives of the Roman Kingdom prompts reflection on the nature of historical sources and the construction of national identity. While Romulus and Remus are legendary figures, their stories reflect the myths and values that ancient Romans held dear. Understanding the interplay between myth and reality encourages critical thinking and the questioning of historical narratives.


3.    Foundations of Civilization: The Roman Kingdom laid the groundwork for the later Roman Republic and Empire. It was during this period that Rome began to develop its distinctive identity, including its legal and political institutions. By studying the early forms of Roman governance and societal organization, we gain insight into the origins of Western civilization and the evolution of political systems.


4.    Cultural and Religious Heritage: The Roman Kingdom was a period of significant cultural and religious development. The stories of Romulus and Numa Pompilius are intertwined with myths and rituals that shaped Roman religious beliefs and practices. Exploring these aspects of Roman culture allows us to appreciate the role of religion in ancient societies and its influence on individual and collective behavior.


5.    Legacy and Continuity: Despite the legendary nature of many early Roman stories, they have had a lasting impact on Western culture and civilization. The values, traditions, and institutions established during the Roman Kingdom persisted throughout subsequent periods of Roman history and continue to influence modern societies. By studying this foundational period, we gain a deeper understanding of our cultural heritage and the enduring legacy of ancient Rome.


In conclusion, the study of the Roman Kingdom offers not only insights into the early history of Rome but also valuable lessons about leadership, governance, myth, culture, and continuity. By examining the stories and historical developments of this period, we can draw connections to our own lives and society, enriching our understanding of the past and its relevance to the present.

Vocabulary

Here are some vocabulary words that students should learn while studying the Roman Kingdom period:

1.    Monarchy: A form of government in which a single person, known as a monarch, rules. During the Roman Kingdom period, Rome was ruled by kings.

2.    Founding: The act of establishing or creating something. The founding of Rome refers to its establishment as a city, traditionally attributed to Romulus in 753 BC.

3.    Legend: A traditional story or narrative, often passed down orally, that explains historical events or beliefs. The founding of Rome by Romulus is considered a legend due to its mythical elements.

4.    Mythical: Relating to or based on myths or legends rather than historical fact. Many of the early stories and figures associated with the Roman Kingdom, such as Romulus and Remus, are considered mythical.

5.    Dynasty: A succession of rulers from the same family or line. The Roman Kingdom period saw the rule of several dynasties, each with its own king.

6.    Legislation: Laws enacted by a governing body. During the Roman Kingdom, kings such as Numa Pompilius were credited with establishing early legislation and religious institutions.

7.    Foundation: The basis or groundwork of something. The Roman Kingdom period laid the foundation for the later development of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.

8.    Mythology: A collection of myths or stories that belong to a particular culture or religion. Roman mythology includes tales of gods, heroes, and legendary figures that played significant roles in the early history of Rome.

9.    Sacrifice: The ritual offering of something to a deity, often in the form of an animal, food, or other valuable item. Sacrifices were an important aspect of Roman religious practices during the Kingdom period.

10. Civic: Relating to a city or citizenry. The Roman Kingdom period saw the development of early civic institutions and infrastructure within the city of Rome.

These vocabulary words are essential for understanding the key concepts and historical context of the Roman Kingdom period.

Activities for your Students

Here are some educational activities for students to learn about the Roman Kingdom:


1.    Create a Timeline: Students can create a timeline of significant events in the Roman Kingdom. They can include events such as the founding of Rome by Romulus, the reigns of the early kings, and the construction of important landmarks like the Temple of Jupiter. This activity helps students understand the chronological order of historical events and their significance. Recommended for ages 10 and above.


2.    Research the Legendary Kings: Divide students into groups and assign each group one of the legendary kings of Rome, such as Romulus or Numa Pompilius. Students can research the lives and accomplishments of their assigned king, including their supposed reigns, achievements, and contributions to early Roman society. They can then present their findings to the class, allowing for discussions on historical accuracy and the blending of myth and fact in ancient history. Recommended for ages 12 and above.


3.    Design a Roman Kingdom Artifact: Encourage students to design and create an artifact that represents an aspect of the Roman Kingdom. This could be a piece of pottery, a piece of jewelry, or a model of a building. Students should research the materials and techniques used during this period to ensure historical accuracy in their designs. This hands-on activity allows students to engage with ancient Roman culture and craftsmanship. Recommended for ages 8 and above with adult supervision for crafting activities.


4.    Role-Playing Ancient Roman Citizens: Students can role-play as ancient Roman citizens living during the Roman Kingdom. Assign each student a specific role, such as a farmer, a priestess, or a soldier, and ask them to research and portray the daily life, duties, and responsibilities of their assigned character. This activity helps students understand the social structure and roles within ancient Roman society. Recommended for ages 10 and above.


5.    Mapping Early Rome: Provide students with a map of ancient Rome during the Roman Kingdom period. Students can label important landmarks, such as the Palatine Hill, the Capitoline Hill, and the Forum Romanum, and trace the development of the city during this time. This activity helps students visualize the geography of ancient Rome and understand its strategic location and early urban layout. Recommended for ages 10 and above.


These activities aim to make learning about the Roman Kingdom engaging and interactive for students of various ages, fostering a deeper understanding of this foundational period in Roman history.


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